The African Union (AU) has officially been admitted as a member of the G20 during its annual meeting in India. This significant development recognizes Africa as a potential unified economic and political entity, bolstering its presence, importance, and influence on the global stage. Moreover, it serves as a catalyst for advancing the collective goals of the African population.
This initiative stems from the countries of the global south, with the primary aim of advocating for reforms in global economic governance mechanisms such as the United Nations Security Council, the World Trade Organization, and other crucial organizations. It also seeks to enhance the participation of developing nations in international financial institutions by establishing a fair distribution of shares.
The inclusion of Africa in the G20 holds symbolic significance, acknowledging the increasing global relevance of the continent. However, the potential impact of African states’ participation in decision-making and agenda-setting within the G20 may be limited. It depends on the capacity of African countries to leverage this affiliation to their advantage and the willingness of current G20 members to actively address African concerns.
While the excitement of becoming a member of such a forum is undeniable, it is crucial to conduct a thorough analysis of the advantages and disadvantages associated with participation. It is of utmost importance to critically evaluate the AU’s institutional capabilities and defining qualities.
Furthermore, it is imperative to conduct a comparative analysis with other relevant institutions, such as the European Union, in order to effectively address the demographic requirements and aspirations of Africa. Understanding how this platform shift opens up global markets for Africa is crucial. When all factors are held constant, it is important to explore how this platform can benefit Africa specifically.
Who are the G20 decision makers in relation to where the AU Stands?
An essential aspect to consider is the identification and comparison of decision-makers within the G20 and the African Union. This approach will help us grasp the mandates and institutional gaps, not only concerning individual industrial nations but also in relation to the European Union (EU). Before delving into this topic, it is necessary to thoroughly examine the organizational framework of the AU.
The AU can be viewed as an organization comprised of heads of state, functioning collectively. The extent to which these heads of state effectively represent the populations of their respective countries is a topic that requires careful consideration. It is essential to inquire about the number of nations that possess constitutional democracies and assess the presence of lawful governance systems on the continent.
In contrast, the EU exercises supranational jurisdiction, granting it the power to enact legislation across various policy domains such as trade, competition, and the environment. This facilitates the establishment of a unified market and the enforcement of shared rules.
The AU, on the other hand, has a lower degree of supranational power compared to the European Union, as member states maintain a significant level of autonomy. This characteristic presents challenges in effectively implementing shared policies. The AU faces resource limitations that affect its ability to finance and sustain its missions and development efforts. It is worth noting that the primary donor nations largely belong to the G20.
In contrast, the EU boasts a comprehensive and intricate institutional structure, including entities such as the European Commission, European Parliament, European Council, and other authorities. This framework enables effective decision-making and implementation.
Certain institutions within the AU have faced criticism for perceived deficiencies in competency and efficiency, which hinder the effective execution of the organization’s policies and programs, while the EU employs various processes, such as qualified majority voting (QMV) and co-decision procedures, to streamline decision-making among member states, despite the inherent complexity involved.
The expectation is that the AU, through its representation in the G20, can advocate for increased investment in Africa, promote trade between Africa and other industrialized countries, and ensure that Africa’s voice is heard in discussions on global economic matters.
However, the AU’s capacity to implement decisive measures, particularly in addressing crises, is limited due to the absence of institutional authority and sufficient representation of its citizens. In contrast, the EU is renowned for its stringent regulatory standards and efforts towards harmonization. These initiatives play a significant role in ensuring product safety, safeguarding the interests of citizens, and fostering a fair and balanced environment for all stakeholders.
The primary focus of the G20 revolves around economic matters, including financial stability, trade, and development. The inclusion of the AU in the G20 may potentially lead to an increased emphasis on African development and trade-related issues within the G20 agenda. However, it is unlikely that the fundamental objective of the G20 will undergo significant changes, as it continues to prioritize global economic regulation.
Despite Africa’s flaws, the prospects are enormous
Despite the numerous obstacles Africa faces, there is a considerable amount of optimism and aspirations for the continent. Realizing this perspective requires current African leadership to substantially reorganize the African Union by implementing a governance model centered on the people. This would enable the supranational entity to make decisions and negotiate on its own behalf.
Africans are now witnessing a discreet transition from a detrimental cycle to a beneficial one. To maintain a favorable perception from industrialized countries, African states must diligently fulfill their responsibilities in a suitable manner to progress to subsequent stages.
Africa undeniably houses several countries experiencing tremendous growth, and its young demographic represents a significant market and workforce. Through the inclusion, industrialized nations demonstrate their eagerness to actively engage with Africa’s economic potential and their desire to foster economic progress and stability throughout the continent.
It is widely recognized that the G20 primarily operates as an informal platform for global economic cooperation and policy deliberation, rather than a formal global governance institution. However, soft power can influence the operations of established international institutions such as the United Nations or the World Trade Organization.
Therefore, the inclusion of the AU is unlikely to result in significant changes to the decision-making process or organizational structure of the G20. The AU’s ability to effectively align its objectives with the interests of existing G20 members will determine its influence within the group. However, this influence should not come at the expense of compromising the aspirations of African people for political and economic independence.
The potential outcomes of the AU’s inclusion in the G20 will depend on how adeptly African states utilize this platform to promote their own agendas. While the existence of the AU may provide opportunities for dialogue and collaboration, achieving tangible policy objectives will require skilled diplomacy and alignment with the interests of established G20 members.
There are indeed scholars who argue that the African Union’s inclusion in the G20 holds primarily symbolic significance and is unlikely to have a substantial impact on Africa’s progress. They point out that the G20 is predominantly controlled by affluent industrialized nations, reducing the likelihood of significant influence for the AU within its decision-making framework.
Moreover, the African Union is seen to have inherent weaknesses and divisions, which diminish its capacity to effectively advocate for Africa’s interests through its representation in the G20.
The representation of diverse interests and economies within Africa presents both opportunities and challenges. It has the potential to facilitate the establishment of a cohesive African stance within the G20, preventing fragmentation and ensuring that different African nations with distinct economic, political, and strategic agendas are represented effectively.
Despite these criticisms, the AU’s inclusion in the G20 represents a positive development for the African continent. The increasing importance of Africa in the global economy is evident through the AU’s enhanced representation and influence in the primary platform for international economic collaboration.
The African Union should strategically utilize its position within the G20 to actively promote and safeguard Africa’s interests while ensuring the effective representation of Africa’s perspectives in global economic deliberations.
Contributed by Seife Tadelle